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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-June 2018
Volume 32 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-39

Online since Tuesday, March 6, 2018

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Allergoid preparations for allergen immunotherapy: A brief overview Highly accessed article p. 1
SN Gaur
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Common aeroallergens among children with allergies in the United Arab Emirates p. 4
Hanan Abdulgader Sharif, Elrasheed Salih, Hadeel Awad, Rasha Albarazi
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the most common allergens that cause sensitization in skin prick tests (SPTs). Subjects and Methods: The data for this retrospective cross-sectional study were collected from results in 180 patients referred to our clinic with allergic rhinitis (AR), asthma, or atopic dermatitis (AD). All participants underwent SPT during 2013–2015 in our clinic at University Hospital Sharjah. SPT was performed with 15 aeroallergens selected based on the most common identifiable allergens in the region. A mean wheal diameter of at least 3 mm greater than the negative control was considered positive. Statistical analysis was done through SPSS 21. Results: The patients' ages ranged from 12 months to 16 years. About 69.4% had AR, 52.2% had asthma, and 21.1% had AD. Among positive patients, 89.4% were polysensitized and 10.6% were single sensitized. House dust mites (HDMs) yielded the highest prevalence of sensitization, followed by cat dander and feather mix (both 17.2%). The least common of all indoor aeroallergens was cockroach (8.9%). Molds yielded the following sensitization rates: Alternaria alternata 26.1%, Cladosporium mix 20.00%, and Aspergillus mixture 17.8%. Among outdoor allergens, sensitization rates were 21.1% for Phleum pratense, 17.2% for Russian thistle, 14.4% for Chenopodium album, and 10.0% for date palm. The least common outdoor allergen was Bermuda grass with a percentage sensitization of 5.6%. Conclusions: The most common aeroallergens identified by SPT in our allergy clinic were HDMs in all allergic diseases, which is consistent with results from similar studies in our region. The most common allergic disease in our population was AR.
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The rising trend of asthma prevalence in urban school children of Jaipur: A questionnaire based study p. 10
Mukesh Kumar Gupta, Jyoti Patodia, Pawan Chaudhary, Munish Kakkar
Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the current prevalence of asthma and other allergies in urban school children of Jaipur and further to assess the increasing trend. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2925 urban school children (5–15 years) of Jaipur using a modified school-based-allergy and asthma screening questionnaire. Results: Among 2925 children screened, 24% (702) were labeled as probable asthmatics of which 18.2% (532) were diagnosed to have asthma, and only 6.2% had previously diagnosed asthma by physician. Conclusion: The current prevalence of asthma is 18.2% which is on a rapidly rising trend and despite its high prevalence; the disease still remains highly underdiagnosed in children.
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Prevalence of various oculo-respiratory allergic conditions and their comorbid association: A cross-sectional observational study in children (6–18 years) from Jaipur p. 15
Pawan Kumar Dara, Priyanka Kumari, Harimohan Meena, Bhagwan Sahai Sharma
Context: There is very little literature available on prevalence of pediatric oculo-respiratory allergies. Aims: This study aims to study the prevalence and to determine the association of allergic rhinitis (AR), bronchial asthma (BA), and allergic conjunctivitis (AC) as comorbidities in children of Jaipur district. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional observation study was done among school going children (6–18 year) from 13 schools of urban and rural areas of Jaipur district chosen randomly. Subjects and Methods: This study included 5002 children out of them 61.04% were male. A predesigned validated questionnaire containing various questions pertaining to oculo-respiratory allergies were distributed. Students and parents filled questionnaire and labeled as BA, AR, or AC according to their answers. Statistical Analysis Used: Qualitative data were expressed in the form of percentage and proportion measured by Chi-square test. Quantitative data were expressed in mean and standard deviation scale measured by unpaired t-test. Results: In our study, population 1883 (37.64%) of children were suffering from one or more of the allergic morbidities. About 21.99%, 10.67%, and 16.04% of children were suffering from AR alone, BA alone, AC alone, respectively. Nearly 12.37% of children were suffering from both BA and AR, 8.71% of children were suffering from both BA and AC, and 12.48% of children were suffering from both AR + AC, 17.74% of children were suffering from all three (BA, AR, and AC). Conclusions: The study showed a high prevalence of children was suffering from one or more of the allergic diseases and there was a significant association between them.
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Contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis in patients with eczematous lesions p. 20
Perpetua U Ibekwe, Eshan B Henshaw, Bob A Ukonu, Grace Otokpa, Zainab Babba, Chinyere Okwuonu
Context: Patch testing is an effective investigative tool in the determination of specific allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Sensitization to various allergens has been shown to vary by geographic regions. AIMS: The aim of this study was to use patch test to assess the frequency/pattern of contact allergy in patients with eczematous lesions and to identify possible relationships between sex, age, and type of eczema. Subjects and Methods: From a total of 1331 patients seen at the dermatology clinic of the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, in March 2015 to April 2016, 79 patients with eczema were consecutively patch tested. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test was used to analyze the categorical variables. The level of significance for all analyses was 0.05. Results: One or more positive reactions were observed in 53 patients (67.1%). The highest yield was observed with potassium dichromate (10.4%), nickel sulfate (9.7%), cobalt chloride (7.6%), and fragrance mix 1 (6.9%). Of the 51 patients (64.6%) diagnosed to have ACD, clinical relevance was observed in 37 cases (69.8%). Contact sensitivity to potassium dichromate was more frequent in male patients (P = 0.036), whereas fragrance mix 1 sensitivity was more in female patients (P = 0.032). There was no significant relationship between the frequency of contact allergy and age, patient's occupation, and type of eczema. Conclusions: Most ACD patients showed contact sensitization to leather products, metal, and perfume use. This knowledge is important when considering preventive measures. However, further studies are needed to provide more insight into contact allergy in Nigeria.
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Experimental study on the effect of Propolis injection Concentration to Anaphylaxis Shock p. 24
Jong-Hui Ri, Gyong-Hua Kang, Sang-Ho Ra
Purpose: To find the effect and mechanism of the action that the propolis injection concentration has on the anaphylactic shock, we made an anaphylactic shock model in guinea pig and found that the shock model guinea pig was recovered from the shock by the propolis injection concentration. We also studied the change of normal mast cell counts and the degranulation counts in a white rat mesentery and we found the effect on the change of the rat intestinal smooth muscular contraction by histamine so that we can explain the mechanism of the propolis action. Materials And Methods: The study methods are as follows: (1) The effect on the anaphylactic shock, (2) the experiment to establish the mechanism of the anaphylactic shock treatment by the propolis injection, (3) the experiment to establish the mechanism of the anaphylactic shock treatment by the propolis injection. Results: The Propolis Injection Concentration was found to increase the survival rate and decrease the counts of the degranulated cells remarkably in the rat mesentery after the anaphylactic shock. Conclusion: The propolis injection concentration shows the recovery of anaphylactic shock and it's mechanism is to block the histamine receptor and depress degranulation of the mast cell. Thus, it can be also used in the treatment of allergic asthma, conjunctivitis, urticaria.
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Identification of airborne pollens in Delhi p. 28
Raj Kumar, Deepak Kumar, Kamal Singh, Anil Kumar Mavi, Manoj Kumar
Aims: To quantify and identify the pollen grains in the atmosphere of Delhi. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at the National Centre of Respiratory Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute (VPCI), University of Delhi, Delhi, India. Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted for 2 months at VPCI, University of Delhi (North Campus), Delhi. Pollen grains were collected on a daily basis using 24-h Burkard (UK) volumetric air sampler. Trapped pollen film was stained with a fuchsin stain that is protected with a cover slip and examined under a light microscope. Identification was done with the help of manuals for pollen identification. Statistical Analysis Used: Data analysis was done by Microsoft Excel 2007. Results: In this study period (April and May 2017), a total of 10,858/m3 pollens were counted; of these, 7758/m3 pollens of 34 species of trees, weeds, and grasses were identified. Overall, Juniper sp. (1385/m3) pollen of tree was found to be the most dominant pollen, followed by Cannabis sativa (726/m3), Pooideae grasses (e.g. Poa sp., Lolium perenne, Dactylis glomerata) (654/m3), Cynodon dactylon (509/m3), Amaranthus sp. (506/m3), Artemisia sp. (460/m3), Cassia sp. (447/m3), Chenopodium album (412/m3), Helenium autumnale (381/m3), and Parthenium (301/m3). Juniper sp. (1310/m3) pollens in April 2017 and C. sativa (421/m3) pollens in May 2017 have shown their dominance. Conclusions: In our study, various pollens of different plant species were counted and identified in this short study period. The common pollens found were Juniper sp., C. sativa, Pooideae grasses (e.g. Poa sp., Lolium perenne, Dactylis glomerata), C. dactylon, Amaranthus sp., C. album, H. autumnale, Parthenium, and Artemisia sp. in 2 months. This short study may be helpful for the respiratory allergic patients to protect themselves by pollens.
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Fatal peripheral T-cell lymphoma presenting as hypereosinophilia and spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome: A rare case report p. 34
Majed B Momin, Abhijeet Ingle, G Vamshi Krishna Reddy, Anamika Aluri, B Saroj Kumar Prusty
Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (TCLs) are a heterogeneous group of aggressive, uncommon forms of T-cell or natural killer cell-derived non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Acute tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a multiple metabolic derangement that occurs due to the treatment of malignancies or spontaneous tumor cell death. We report the case of a 56-year-old male patient who presented with marked eosinophilic leukocytosis, rash, and lymphadenopathy at the initial visit but finally manifested with TCL and spontaneous TLS. On the first visit, hemogram showed a marked eosinophilic leukocytosis and raised lactate dehydrogenase. The patient refused for admission; however, lymph node biopsy was done on day-care basis. After 3 days, the patient presented in the emergency room with shortness of breath, altered renal and liver parameters, and dyselectrolytemia. Based on histopathological with immunohistochemistry findings on lymph node biopsy and clinical and laboratory finding, the patient was diagnosed as TCL-not otherwise specified with TLS.
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Obituary p. 39

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