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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 32  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 20-23

Contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis in patients with eczematous lesions

1 Department of Internal Medicine, Dermatology Unit, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria
2 Department of Internal Medicine, Dermatology Unit, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Perpetua U Ibekwe
Consultant Dermatologist, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital Gwagwalada, Abuja
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijaai.ijaai_7_17

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Context: Patch testing is an effective investigative tool in the determination of specific allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Sensitization to various allergens has been shown to vary by geographic regions. AIMS: The aim of this study was to use patch test to assess the frequency/pattern of contact allergy in patients with eczematous lesions and to identify possible relationships between sex, age, and type of eczema. Subjects and Methods: From a total of 1331 patients seen at the dermatology clinic of the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, in March 2015 to April 2016, 79 patients with eczema were consecutively patch tested. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test was used to analyze the categorical variables. The level of significance for all analyses was 0.05. Results: One or more positive reactions were observed in 53 patients (67.1%). The highest yield was observed with potassium dichromate (10.4%), nickel sulfate (9.7%), cobalt chloride (7.6%), and fragrance mix 1 (6.9%). Of the 51 patients (64.6%) diagnosed to have ACD, clinical relevance was observed in 37 cases (69.8%). Contact sensitivity to potassium dichromate was more frequent in male patients (P = 0.036), whereas fragrance mix 1 sensitivity was more in female patients (P = 0.032). There was no significant relationship between the frequency of contact allergy and age, patient's occupation, and type of eczema. Conclusions: Most ACD patients showed contact sensitization to leather products, metal, and perfume use. This knowledge is important when considering preventive measures. However, further studies are needed to provide more insight into contact allergy in Nigeria.

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