Home Print this page Email this page Small font size Default font size Increase font size
Users Online: 318
Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 28  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 68-73

Monitoring of indoor particulate matter during burning of mosquito coil, incense sticks and dhoop


Department of Respiratory Allergy, Asthma and Applied Immunology, National Centre of Respiratory Allergy, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India

Date of Web Publication15-Sep-2014

Correspondence Address:
Raj Kumar
Department of Respiratory Allergy and Applied Immunology, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi, New Delhi - 110 007
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0972-6691.140770

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

Background: Indoor combustion source, like incenses, are commonly used for aesthetic and religious purposes in various indoor as well as outdoor environments. The combustion leads to the production of a large amount of smoke, which can pose a health risk due to inhalation exposure of particulate matter (PM). Objective: Monitoring of PM (PM 10 , PM 2.5 , and PM 1 ) during the preburning, burning and postburning phases of incenses (agarbatti and dhoop) and mosquito coil in the indoor environment. Materials and Methods: The monitoring of PM was carried out using the Grimm Portable Laser Aerosol Spectrometer and dust monitor model 1.108/1.109. The substances used were mosquito coil, incense (sandal), incense (floral sticks) and dhoop. The data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical package version 14.0 for windows (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA), using one-way analysis of variance to compare the PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 concentration levels. Results: The mean concentrations of PM 10 (1879.7 μ/m 3 ), PM 2.5 (1775.4 μ/m 3 ) and PM 1 (1300.1 μ/m 3 ) during burning phase were highest for dhoop. The mean concentrations of PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PM 1 during burning of mosquito coil were 259.2 μ/m 3 , 232.4 μ/m 3 and 214.0 μ/m 3 respectively. The burning of incense (flora) had PM 10 (854.1 μ/m 3 ), PM 2.5 (779.8 μ/m 3 ) and PM 1 (699.8 μ/m 3 ), which were higher, in comparison to burning of incense (sandal). The particulate emission during the burning of dhoop (PM 10, PM 2.5, PM 1 ) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than incense (sandal and flora) and mosquito coil. The concentrations of PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PM 1 even during postburning phase were significantly higher for dhoop in comparison to other three products, resulting in prolonged exposure even after the cessation of burning phase. Conclusion: The study suggests burning of dhoop, incense sticks and mosquito coil in the indoor environment emit quiet higher respirable PM, which may accumulate on prolonged exposure and lead to respiratory illnesses.

Keywords: Incense sticks, indoor particulate matter, mosquito coil


How to cite this article:
Kumar R, Gupta N, Kumar D, Mavi AK, Singh K, Kumar M. Monitoring of indoor particulate matter during burning of mosquito coil, incense sticks and dhoop. Indian J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2014;28:68-73

How to cite this URL:
Kumar R, Gupta N, Kumar D, Mavi AK, Singh K, Kumar M. Monitoring of indoor particulate matter during burning of mosquito coil, incense sticks and dhoop. Indian J Allergy Asthma Immunol [serial online] 2014 [cited 2017 Jul 22];28:68-73. Available from: http://www.ijaai.in/text.asp?2014/28/2/68/140770


  Introduction Top


Indoor combustion source, like incenses, are commonly used for aesthetic and religious purposes. Incense is available in various forms including sticks, joss sticks, cones, coils, powders, rope, rocksy charcoal, and smudge bundles. In developing countries, incenses are burned inside homes as well as in public places including stores, shopping malls, and places of worship. Mosquito coil is widely known as an efficient mosquito repellent. On burning of a mosquito coil, the insecticides evaporate with the smoke preventing the mosquito from entering the room, while combustion of the remaining materials (organic fillers, binders, dyes, and other additives) generates large amounts of submicrometer particles and gaseous pollutants.

The respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM) is of great significance as they may significantly affect the health of individuals. [1] The Environmental Protection Agency (2006) regulates particulate matter (PM) as PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 [2] PM 10 , particle <10 μm, can penetrate the defense mechanisms of the upper and middle regions of the respiratory tract, while PM 2.5 particle <2.5 μm, is transported into the lower pulmonary system. The 24 h mean PM level as per World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for air quality is 25 μg/m 3 for PM 2.5 and 50 μg/m 3 for PM 10 (particles <10 μm). [3] However, there is no standard reference value for PM 2.5 levels in indoor air pollution. On extensive review of literature, there is sparse data on indoor PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 levels on burning of mosquito coil, incense stick and dhoop.

Despite the evidence of potential adverse health effects of mosquito coil smoke and burning of incense, large populations in developing countries still use them in their daily lives. The objective of the present study is to measure the concentrations of PM 10 (<10 μm), PM 2.5 (<2.5 μm), and PM 1.0 (<1.0 μm) in the indoor environment using mosquito coil, incense (sandal and flora sticks) and dhoop.


  Materials and methods Top


The instrument was placed in a 14 ft × 10 ft × 8 ft sized single room and having a 4 ft × 1 ft window area open for the dispersion of PM and a fan is on at 110 rpm speed. There were no people residing in the room. The monitoring of PM was carried out using the Grimm Portable Laser Aerosol (GRIMM Aerosol Technik GmbH & Co. KG, Germany) Spectrometer and dust monitor model 1.108/1.109 measuring instrument [Figure 1]. The substances used for studying the PM were burned mosquito coil, incense (sandal), incense (flora sticks) and dhoop [Figure 1].
Figure 1: The Grimm Portable Laser Aerosol Spectrometer and dust monitor along with various incense objects

Click here to view


The principle of measuring of PM of Grimm Portable Laser Aerosol Spectrometer and dust monitor model 1.108/1.109 based on the sample air is led with flow rate 1.2 l/min directly into the measuring cell via the aerosol inlet. The particles in the sample air are being detected by light scattering inside the measuring cell. The scattering light pulse of every single particle is being counted and the intensity of light of its scattering light signal is classified to a certain particle size. The mean room PM concentration (PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 ) was measured before burning, during burning and after burning phase of all the four substances.

Statistical analysis

All data analysis was performed using SPSS statistical package version 14.0 for windows (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). One-way analysis of variance was applied to compare the PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 concentration levels.


  Results Top


The PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 concentration levels were measured for mosquito coil, incense (sandal), incense (flora sticks) and dhoop. These concentration levels were measured before burning, during burning and after burning phase of all the four substances uniformly [Table 1] and [Figure 2]a-d. The levels of PM were recorded for 1 h before the beginning of burning phase. However, the duration of burning phase for mosquito coil, incense (sandal), incense (flora sticks) and dhoop was 4, 1, 1 and 2 h respectively. The recording of PM levels continued for 1 h after the burning phase was completed. The mean concentrations of PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 during the three phases for all four substances are depicted in [Table 1]. The peak emission gradient of PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 for all four substances is described in [Table 2].
Figure 2: (a) Monitoring of particulate matter (PM) during all three phases of burning of dhoop. (b) Monitoring of PM during all three phases of burning of incense sticks (flora). (c) Monitoring of PM during all three phases of burning of mosquito coil. (d) Monitoring of PM during all three phases of burning of incense sticks (sandal)

Click here to view
Table 1: Monitoring of PM during burning of mosquito coil, agarbatti and dhoop

Click here to view
Table 2: Peak emission of particulates and PM fraction due to burning of mosquito coil, agarbatti (sandal and flora) and dhoop

Click here to view


The statistical analysis showed no significant difference between mosquito coil, incense (sandal), incense (flora sticks) and dhoop for PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 concentrations during the preburning phase [Figure 3]a-c. During the burning phase, the PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 concentrations were highest for dhoop, followed by incense (flora sticks), mosquito coil and incense (sandal) in decreasing order, the difference being statistically significant (P < 0.05) [Figure 4]a-c. Similarly, in after burning phase, PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 concentrations were maximum for dhoop, followed by incense (flora sticks), mosquito coil and incense (sandal) in a decreasing order, the difference being statistically significant (P < 0.05) [Figure 5]a-c. The results concluded that dhoop burning has the highest emission of the PM and incense (sandal) the least.
Figure 3: (a) Particulate matter (PM10) concentrations during preburning phase. (b) PM2.5 concentrations during preburning phase. (c) PM1 concentrations during preburning phase

Click here to view
Figure 4: (a) Particulate matter (PM10) concentrations during burning phase. (b) PM2.5 concentrations during burning phase. (c) PM1 concentrations during burning phase

Click here to view
Figure 5: (a) Particulate matter (PM10) concentrations during postburning phase. (b) PM2.5 concentrations during postburning phase. (c) PM1 concentrations during postburning phase

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


Mosquito coils are frequently burned indoors in Asia, Africa and to a limited extent in other parts of the world, including the United States (WHO, 2005). In 1996, the WHO report estimated the worldwide annual consumption of mosquito coils to burn approximately 29 billion pieces. In a study in Taiwanese households, the prevalence of burning mosquito coils is 45% (WHO, 1998). The consumers usually use mosquito coils for at least several months every year, cumulative effects from long-term exposure to the coil smoke may also be a concern. Despite the fact that mosquito coil smoke may have many potential adverse health effects, large populations in developing countries still use mosquito coils in their daily lives.

In epidemiologic studies, long-term exposure to mosquito coil smoke has been shown to induce asthma and persistent wheeze in children. [4],[5] In a study from Italy, [6] the total PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 concentration for one hour burning period of mosquito coil were 169 ± 4.01 μg/m 3 , 14.8 ± 3.68 μg/m 3 and 14.4 ± 3.74 μg/m 3 respectively. The study also compared PM concentrations during burning of mosquito coil to incense stick and candle. The study showed the burning of mosquito coil had least PM concentration. The studied hypothesized it to be due to mosquito coil's smoldering combustion.

In the present study, the mean concentrations of PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 for mosquito coil during 4 h of burning were 352.5, 268.5 and 259.2 μg/m 3 respectively. These concentrations were significantly lower in comparison to burning of dhoop and incense (floral) in a similar environment.

Studies have indicated exposure to incense smoke may be linked to the occurrence of asthma, [7],[8] mutagenesis [9] and cancers [10] in the exposed individuals. Preston-Martin et al. [11] reported an increased risk of childhood brain tumors in children with maternal contact with nitrosamine-containing substances such as burning incense. A wide variety of substances used to produce incense includes resins (such as frankincense and myrrh), spices, aromatic wood and bark, herbs, seeds, roots, flowers, essential oils, and synthetic substitute chemicals used in the perfume industry. The incense burning generates a large amount of particles, over an extended period (e.g. years of incense usage). Thus habitual incense use increases the exposure to respirable-size particles.

Incense sticks have a base, often a slender piece of wood or bamboo, to which incense compounds are attached. Cones taper to a point on top for easy ignition and produce a greater amount of smoke as they burn down to the larger diameter bottom. The current study used two types of incense sticks, one containing sandal and other had flora; whereas the dhoop used was conical in shape.

A study conducted by Chao et al. [12] at eight residences in Hong Kong, the peak concentration of RSPM at one site with incense burning was 1850 μg/m 3 when ventilation was poor. This level was substantially higher than Hong Kong's annual-limit guideline for indoor RSPM of 55 μg/m 3 . In a similar study by Tung et al. [13] of indoor particulate levels in 50 Hong Kong apartments, the mean PM 10 level were 96.6 μg/m 3 with smoking or incense burning which was 23% higher than the mean level found for all of the apartments.

In a study by Jetter et al., [14] the burning of the cone for 44 min produced a peak concentration of PM 2.5 was 4.0 mg/m 3 while the burning of the incense stick for 43 min, peak concentration of PM 2.5 was 0.085 mg/m 3 . The study concluded that the use of incense can substantially increase the exposure to potentially harmful fine PM. The current study observed significantly higher levels of mean PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 for the burning of dhoop in comparison to incense and mosquito coils. The present study also observed higher levels of mean PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 levels for floral incense in comparison to sandal incense sticks. In a study by Stabile et al., [6] three different fragrances of incense sticks (freesia, citronella and church), produced RSPM of different concentrations. The total PM 2.5 and PM1.0 concentrations were highest for freesia incense while the PM 10 level was highest for citronella incense stick.

The factors increasing the risk from PM are long exposure duration, inadequate room ventilation, small size of the room, long burning time and high-emission rates. Lung et al. [15] evaluated the contribution of incense burning to indoor PM 10 and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under the closed and ventilated conditions. The PM 10 concentrations were 723 μg/m 3 and 178 μg/m 3 under closed and ventilated conditions respectively; the concentrations were elevated for at least 6 h under closed condition. The findings of the current study also illustrate similar pattern and thus supports the fact that burning of various incense substances leads to higher RSPM inside closed environments. The clinical impact of higher RSPM particles from burning of various incense objects, as a causative agent of respiratory illness, needs further evaluation.


  Conclusion Top


The study suggests burning of dhoop, incense sticks and mosquito coil in the indoor environment emit quiet higher respirable PM, which may accumulate on prolonged exposure. The households should have better ventilation in order to avoid build of the PM. Thus, residing in such a higher particulate concentration may lead to serious respiratory health concerns.

 
  References Top

1.Pope CA 3 rd , Dockery DW. Health effects of fine particulate air pollution: Lines that connect. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 2006;56:709-42.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.National ambient air quality standards for particulate matter. Available from: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2006-10-17/pdf/06-8477.pdf#page=1. [Last accessed on 2013 Dec 12].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Air Quality Guidelines. Global Update 2005. Available from: http://www.euro.who.int/Document/E90038.pdf. [Last accessed on 2010 Mar 17].  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Azizi BH, Henry RL. The effects of indoor environmental factors on respiratory illness in primary school children in Kuala Lumpur. Int J Epidemiol 1991;20:144-50.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Fagbule D, Ekanem EE. Some environmental risk factors for childhood asthma: A case-control study. Ann Trop Paediatr 1994;14:15-9.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Stabile L, Fuoco FC, Buonanno G. Characteristics of particles and black carbon emitted by combustion of incenses, candles and anti-mosquito products. Build Environ 2012;56:184-91.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Hong CY, Ng TP, Wong ML, Koh KT, Goh LG, Ling SL. Lifestyle and behavioural risk factors associated with asthma morbidity in adults. QJM 1994;87:639-45.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Dawod ST, Hussain AA. Childhood asthma in Qatar. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1995;75:360-4.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Chen CC, Lee H. Genotoxicity and DNA adduct formation of incense smoke condensates: Comparison with environmental tobacco smoke condensates. Mutat Res 1996;367:105-14.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.MacLennan R, Da Costa J, Day NE, Law CH, Ng YK, Shanmugaratnam K. Risk factors for lung cancer in Singapore Chinese, a population with high female incidence rates. Int J Cancer 1977;20:854-60.  Back to cited text no. 10
[PUBMED]    
11.Preston-Martin S, Yu MC, Benton B, Henderson BE. N-Nitroso compounds and childhood brain tumors: A case-control study. Cancer Res 1982;42:5240-5.  Back to cited text no. 11
[PUBMED]    
12.Chao CY, Tung TC, Burnett J. Influence of different indoor activities on the indoor particulate levels in residential buildings. Indoor Built Environ 1998;7:110-21.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Tung TC, Chao CY, Burnett J, Pang SW, Lee RY. A territory wide survey on indoor particulate level in Hong Kong. Build Environ 1999;34:213-20.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Jetter JJ, Guo Z, McBrian JA, Flynn MR. Characterization of emissions from burning incense. Sci Total Environ 2002;295:51-67.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Lung SC, Kao MC, Hu SC. Contribution of incense burning to indoor PM10 and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under two ventilation conditions. Indoor Air 2003;13:194-9.  Back to cited text no. 15
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]


This article has been cited by
1 Indoor air quality scenario in India—An outline of household fuel combustion
Himanshi Rohra,Ajay Taneja
Atmospheric Environment. 2016; 129: 243
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Exposure to particulate matter in India: A synthesis of findings and future directions
Pallavi Pant,Sarath K. Guttikunda,Richard E. Peltier
Environmental Research. 2016; 147: 480
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Materials and me...
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed15553    
    Printed61    
    Emailed1    
    PDF Downloaded236    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 2    

Recommend this journal